woensdag 27 juni 2018

Improve control on second hand arms exports

Surplus arms will come to the market when armed forces are shrinking because of budget limitations or are restructuring due to major strategic changes. This happened for example in the nineties after the Cold War, when NATO armies shifted their focus towards intervention forces. It is also happening now; Cold War 2.0 comes with new generations of ships, vehicles and fighter planes making arms already in use obsolete and for sale.

In 2013, during the aftermath of the economic crisis, Europe was even called world leader on surplus arms trade. Although surplus trade in small arms and light weapons and ammunition attracted the attention of governments, less vigilance was devoted to surplus major conventional weapons, although they “can be used in human rights violations or in build-ups to regional conflicts breakouts. Surplus conventional weapons raise similar issues as newly exported weapons.”

Table showing surplus defence equipment export totals 2003-2017
Totaal x miljoen
Totaal x miljoen

Source: annual reports on The Netherlands arms export policy


In surplus or second hand arms sales governments adopt the role of arms exporters while at the same time they are tasked with export control. For that reason in the Netherlands this kind of trade is more transparent and better controlled than commercial arms sales. In 2017 Dutch F-16 spare parts were sold to ILN Technologies in Los Angeles. ILN stores F-16 items, acquired from the US Government, Israel, the UK, the Netherlands and Belgium and sells them to customers. It is involved in repair and overhaul. In this case – and not for the first time – the company sold them to the Indonesian air force for the F-16 fleet. Those fighter jets play a major role in the build up of the archipelago's growing defence force. The deal is an example of the detailed Dutch surplus arms exports facts in the annual report on the arms exports (see for a complete overview Table showing surplus defence equipment disposals 2003-2017).

Since the first annual arms export report in 1997: “Netherlands exports of complete weapons systems in recent years can be virtually entirely accounted for by disposals of surplus Netherlands defence equipment.” Governmental exports run from small spare parts to major and complex weapon systems like tanks, helicopters, fighter jets and naval vessels. Hundreds of millions may be involved in such transactions. The Dutch Government declared, already in 1997, that: “the regular licence procedure has to be completed for the export of surplus matériel as well.


Sometimes the Dutch government uses flexible arguments to defend its own arms exports. The Hague asked the King of Jordan for a promise not to use Dutch delivered F-16 fighter jets in Yemen (the Kingdom is involved with F-16's in the Saudi led operations). According to the Dutch government the king has given his promise on paper, but this paper remains secret. However the parliament's concerns about Jordan and the Yemen war were eliminated. If Jordan does not keep its promise the issue can only be addressed in Jordan, the Dutch Minister or Foreign Affairs said during the latest arms export policy debate, but that is all we have.” Not any sanction is part of the deal.


Nowadays EU-members France, Germany and the UK also provide specific information on deliveries of surplus arms in their export reports. And the SIPRI trade register database contains many second hand arms and equipment deals from many EU member states. See table Transfers of major second hand weapons: Deals with deliveries or orders made for 2013-2017 for recent sales and donations of surplus arms from a selection of Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech rep. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK). Only Austria and Finland had no second hand exports.

Some examples:

  • Belgium transferred military vehicles to Bahrain and the Philipines;
  • Azerbaijan got a multiple rocket launcher from the Chech Republic after it was refurbished in Israel;
  • Turkish Leopard 2A4 in Al Bab, Syria, Germany sold them second hand (table).
    Denmark shipped a patrol craft to Lithuania;
  • Fokker transport aircraft were exported by the Netherlands to Peru and Myanmar;
  • Nigeria got helicopters from France;
  • Germany sold second hand submarines to Colombia and lots of equipment to Iraq;
  • Italy delivered armoured personnel vehicles to Libya;
  • Spain sold transport aircraft to Pakistan;
  • Sweden delivered radar planes to Saudi Arabia; and
  • the Ukraine got UK armoured personnel carriers.


Political affiliations, historical ties and previously established arms trade relationships play a major role in the transit of surplus arms. Sales and donations of second hand equipment smooth ties between Ministries of Defence in the European capitals and in the customer countries. There are no (or only minimal) private business considerations, thus the Government can not hide behind industry interests. Maybe there is refurbishment involved, providing some jobs and some private profits, but that is not a major argument to defend these sales. So one can wonder how the Saudi's and Bahrain became customers for surplus arms; how European second hand arms ended in the Caucasus and the Congo. Foreign policy (or just sales) arguments seem to weight more heavy than arms control.

Control to be strengthened

In Germany, the Budgetary and Foreign Affairs committees of the Bundestag are notified in advance of transfers of surplus equipment and military assistance. In the Netherlands, Parliament is informed on large sales of surplus arms, including information on how the sale is considered against the EU arms export control criteria. And contrary to information on sale of new equipment, surplus equipment is reported in advance of providing an export license. This is not only make the sales more transparent but gives parliament also the possibility to react. However only a handful of EU member states report and debate surplus arms sales. But in most EU member states, transparency and control of surplus or second hand arms export must be strengthened. 

Written for Stop Wapenhandel.

Further reading:

zondag 24 juni 2018

Week 25 in #wapenhandel25tweets

(Gaarne 'liken' of delen als je het nuttig of interessant vindt.
Please like or share if it is helpful or interesting for you.)

See tweets 22-23

Netherlands / Nederland (see 11, 21, 29, 30)

1 – 190618: The concept notes of a Dutch debate on arms exports. The Dutch will implement a restrictive arms export policy on the UAE, and more. [in Dutch] https://www.tweedekamer.nl/downloads/document?id=ebdb37f3-8828-4eb6-bcd9-9d561267c6fb&title=Conceptverslag%20Wapenexportbeleid%20.docx

EUROPE (see 10)

Belgium / België

2 – 180618: Some of the big ticket pending foreign military sales at a US agency included 34 #F35 to #Belgium for $6.5 billion, 14 F16s to #Slovakia at a cost of $2.9 billion, 6 C-130 aircraft to Germany at a cost of $1.4 billion, and several deals to the Middle East https://www.whio.com/news/local-military/this-wright-patt-office-helps-broker-our-military-sales-foreign-countries-here-how-changing/

3 – 200618: The U.S. Army’s test-firing of a 30mm gun turret from CMI Defence is seen by the Belgian firm as putting it in a privileged position for an upcoming tender for greater firepower for the Stryker combat vehicle, a company spokesman said. https://www.defensenews.com/digital-show-dailies/eurosatory/2018/06/19/us-army-test-fires-belgian-made-gun-amid-plans-for-stryker-upgrade-competition/
4 – 200618: Bekijk hier het verslag van de hoorzitting 'overheidssteun aan onderzoeksprojecten met een mogelijke militaire affiniteit' https://ewi-vlaanderen.be/nieuws/hoorzitting-overheidssteun-aan-onderzoeksprojecten-met-een-mogelijke-militaire-affiniteit met @VARIO_VL en @Vredesinstituut

Czech Rep. / Česko

5 – 210618: There are more useful records to break: Czech Armed Forces unveiled plans by the country to spend 100 billion koruna (U.S. $4.5 billion) on what he called the largest military modernization program in the Czech Republic’s history. https://www.defensenews.com/global/europe/2018/06/20/heres-what-the-czech-military-wants-to-buy-with-its-record-45b-modernization-program/

Germany / Deutchland (see also 2, 26)

6 – 210618: Germany approved arms exports worth 6.24 billion euros ($7.23 billion) last year, down 9 percent from 2016, according to a government report rubber-stamped by the cabinet on Wednesday. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-germany-arms-exports/germany-approved-6-2-billion-euros-worth-of-arms-exports-in-2017-down-9-percent-from-2016-idUSKBN1JF36N

But more to conflict regions and the South. "Fortsetzung der dramatischen Fehlentwicklungen der letzten Jahre".
Frankfurter Rundschau, June 21, 2018: eine

7 – 210618: German weapons exports remained high last year despite plans to reduce sales to countries outside the EU and NATO. If arms trade not wanted, militarize more: Arms manufacturers say such deals have been vital to them due to sluggish European spending. https://global.handelsblatt.com/companies/arms-exports-booming-triggering-debate-937438

8 – 240618: "Unexpectedly high number of registrations": German arms manufacturer @HecklerAndKoch cancels and delays #AGM. Shareholder activists keep on using their voting rights to demand arms exports to #HumanRights violating countries be ended. #AGMActivism #bizhumanrights @ShareActionUK

Finland / Suomi

9 – 180618: Conflict in the Caucasus: Armenia imported weapons from #Finland in 2017. http://www.denmarknews.net/news/257509656/armenia-imported-weapons-from-finland-in-2017


10 – 180618: Leonardo wants the cooperation with the French naval group to be open to the US. http://www.lalettredelexpansion.com/10-Resultat-de-rechreche.htm?keyword=Thales [in French, pay wall]

Italy / Italia (see 10)

Sweden / Sverige (see also 24)

11 – 190618: Saab and Damen announce partnership for the Brasil Tamandaré Class Corvette https://saabgroup.com/media/news-press/news/2018-06/saab-and-damen-announce-partnership-for-the-tamandar-class-corvette/

Turkey / Türkiye (see also 28)

12 – 200618: Draft of annual National Defence Authorisation Act (#NDAA), incl. amendment temporarily blocking #Turkey from buying any weapons endorsed by the US Senate this week. Under the act, Turkey is barred from receiving any major defence equipment from US. #F35 https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/us-blocks-sale-of-f-35-fighter-jets-as-tensions-with-turkey-rise-qpws8khzm [pay wall]

13 – 230618: Turkey’s slow-cooking crisis with its NATO allies over its decision to purchase Russian-made S-400 air defense systems is finally simmering into a boil. https://www.defenseone.com/ideas/2018/06/turkey-crisis-allies/149203/

14 – 230618: Turkey receives 1st F-35s — but not so fast: “Lockheed on Thursday delivered its first F-35 stealth fighter jet to Turkey, despite objections from some in Congress over Turkey's detention of a U.S. pastor and its plan to buy a Russian air defense system.” https://www.politico.com/newsletters/morning-defense/2018/06/22/turkey-receives-its-first-f-35s-amid-congressional-opposition-261911


15 – 230618: Hundreds of millions of pounds worth of British-made missiles and bombs have been sold to Saudi Arabia for use in Yemen under an opaque licensing system that makes tracking arms sales more difficult. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/23/uk-hides-arms-trade-saudi-arabia--yemen

Armenia / Hayastan (see 9)
Brasil (see 11)


16 – 210618: Canada's Senate Committee on Human Rights has published a report on how human rights can be promoted in its export sector. One of its advises is the focus of any new controls should be on end uses and end-users. https://sencanada.ca/content/sen/committee/421/RIDR/Reports/ExportandImportsPermitsAct_e.pdf

China / Zhōngguó (see also 24)

17 – 200618: Chinese 'anti-corruption' policy targeted high-ranking officials at China's State-owned aircraft carrier-manufacturing firr, the Chinese government connected Global Times reports. http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1107553.shtml

Israël / Isra'il (see 32)


18 – 210618: The Human Rights Writers Association of Nigeria, HURIWA wants sanctions from the US and EU on Nigeria - included arms sales, because of alleged killings of civilians by security forces since two years ago. http://dailypost.ng/2018/06/21/want-united-states-europe-sanctions-nigeria-huriwa/

Russia / Rossija (see 31)

South Africa

Taiwan / Táiwān (see 30)

Thailand / Prathēt Thai

20 – 200618: Thailand will also finalize the purchase of a $215 million observation satellite from Airbus. The satellite will have multiple uses, including for agriculture and national security. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-thailand-politics/uk-france-should-press-thai-pm-on-rights-to-end-military-rule-group-idUSKBN1JE0NI See for EU arms licenses: http://enaat.org/eu-export-browser/licence.en.html?destination=Thailand

Yemen / Al-Yaman (see 15)


Damen (see also 11)

21 – 190618: Saab, Damen team for Brazilian corvettes | Jane's 360 http://www.janes.com/article/81150/saab-damen-team-for-brazilian-corvettes#.Wyi5PbxACBw.twitter


Arms fairs

22 – 190618: Hosting of arms trade conference in #Glasgow a disgrace. #UDT #submarines http://www.heraldscotland.com/opinion/letters/16296732.Hosting_of_arms_trade_conference_a_disgrace/

23 – 230618: Another day another demo against #ArmsFair coming to Glasgow #SinkUDT cannot believe @GlasgowCC @LeaderGCC is letting this happen @ScottishCND @EdinburghCAAT


24 – 230618: Following CybAero's failed attempt - after a decision of Sweden’s Inspectorate of Strategic Products or #ISP - to seal a deal with China for AUV's, long-term funding problems, the largest military/security drone producer in Sweden has filed for bankruptcy. https://www.defensenews.com/newsletters/unmanned-systems/2018/06/22/swedens-largest-military-drone-maker-files-for-bankruptcy/

F-35 (see also 2, 14)

25 – 190618: Additional #F35 engine power and thermal management capability will enable use of directed-energy weapons and other advanced offensive and defensive systems. http://aviationweek.com/defense/directed-energy-capability-targeted-pratt-f-35-engine-upgrade-plan

26 – 200618: Thanks to NATO infighting, the future of the F-35 Is shrinking - If Germany chooses another platform it would have to be certified by the U.S. to deliver U.S. B61s thermonuclear gravity bombs - https://www.defenseone.com/technology/2018/06/thanks-nato-infighting-future-f-35-shrinking/149136/ … via @defenseone

27 – 230618: The work is far from perfect, but bonuses are paid anyway. Pentagon’s inspector general is reviewing bonuses paid to Lockheed for performance on contracts to support its #F35's. But military services aren't getting the spare parts they need. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-06-21/lockheed-s-f-35-bonus-fees-under-scrutiny-by-pentagon-s-watchdog

28 – 240618: Trump arms an adversary (it's Turkey) https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/22/opinion/trump-arms-an-adversary.html

Small Arms (see 8)

Submarines (see also 22-23)

29 – 200618: Could Dutch industries design and build the replacement for the Walrus class submarines for the Dutch Navy?
The answer is: ‘Yes, we can.'
Yet this answer merits 3 further questions: ‘what costs,’ ‘how many hurdles’ and 'why'. Paraphrasing a lobby report.

30 – 240618: Interesting search for the materialisation of a Taiwanese submarine. Most attention goes to the US. But Netherlands and Germany are looked at for failed efforts to deliver subs in the past. https://www.usni.org/magazines/proceedings/2018-06/taiwan-will-build-subs-us-help


Corruption (see 17)

Defence budget

31 – 240618: Naval ships expert Norman Polmar on exaggeration of strength Russian navy: "there is no reemerging Russian ocean going fleet" (...) "The country's only aircraft carrier is in the Severodvinsk shipyard for rehabilitation and modernization, a three year process." Proceedings, 6/18.

Research and activism

32 – 210618: Councilors in the Spanish city of Pamplona have called on the Spanish government to stop its arms trade with Israel (...) until Israel stops its "oppressive policy against the Palestinian people." https://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/247780

33 – 190618: Make PEACE GREAT again! Met opmerkingen van @sinancan77. @SadetKarabulut, @Ludodb en een uitnodiging deel te nemen aan de anti-NAVO-betoging op 7-7-18 in Brussel (er is een bus). http://broekstukken.blogspot.com/2018/06/make-peace-great-again.html

Met oproep: Aanmelden kan door middel van €7,50 overmaken op rekeningnummer NL35RABO0321512812 ten name van ROOD, jong in de SP onder vermelding van Naam en 'Bus NAVO top', met een mailtje erachteraan naar rood[AT]sp.nl met vermelding van rekeningnummer en aanmelding voor de bus.

This is a selection from a larger amount of tweets. Tweets with a relation the Netherlands, arms trade and defence-industry weight heavier in the selection. If you want to have them daily see http://twitter.com/martinbroek

donderdag 21 juni 2018

Transfers of major second hand weapons: Deals with deliveries or orders made for 2013-2017

Transfers of major second hand weapons: Deals with deliveries or orders made for 2013-2017*
Selected countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech rep. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK)
Country Recipient No. ordered Weapon discription Year of order Year of delivery Deli-vered Comments

Belgium Austria 7 Pandur-2 APC 2015 2015 7 Second-hand; incl 1 ambulance version
Bahrain 45 AIFV-APC (2014) 2015-2016 (45) Second-hand; designation uncertain (reported as 'armoured combat vehicles' and 'M-113 Family of Vehicles')
Indonesia 150 M-113 APC 2014 2014-2017 (125) Second-hand; incl ARV version
(18) M-109A1 155mm Self-propelled gun 2016 2017 (18) Second-hand; M-109A4 version
Philippines 24 M-113 APC 2014 2015 24 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; part of PNP882 m ($20 m) deal; incl 4 modified to IFV and 14 modified to AFSV (with second-hand Philippine turret)
UK 2 BAe-146 Transport aircraft 2012 2013 2 Second-hand; BAe-146-200QC version; UK designation BAE-146 C-3; acquired for use in Afghanistan
Czech Republic Azerbaijan (10) RM-70 122mm Self-propelled MRL (2016) 2017 (10) Second-hand; refurbished in Israel before delivery
Cambodia (61) BMP-1 IFV (2012) 2013 61 Second-hand; designation uncertian (reported as 'armoured combat vehicles')
(20) RM-70 122mm Self-propelled MRL (2012) 2013 20 Second-hand; designation uncertain (reported as 'large calibre artillery systems')
Indonesia (36) RM-70 122mm Self-propelled MRL 2014 2016 8 Second-hand; modernized to RM-70 Vampir version before delivery
Iraq (45) BMP-1 IFV (2014) 2015 (45) Second-hand
3 L-159A ALCA FGA aircraft (2014) 2017 (3) Second-hand; part of $200 m deal
1 L-159B Trainer/combat ac (2014) 2017 1 Second-hand; part of $200 m deal
(60) T-72M1 Tank (2014) 2014-2016 (60) Second-hand
Nigeria (20) BMP-1 IFV (2014) 2014-2015 20 Second-hand; BVP-1 version
(7) RM-70 122mm Self-propelled MRL (2014) 2015 7 Second-hand
(20) T-72M1 Tank (2014) 2015 20 Second-hand
Turkmenistan (6) RM-70 122mm Self-propelled MRL 2015 2016 (6) Probably second-hand
United States 21 L-159A ALCA FGA aircraft 2014 2015-2017 (21) Second-hand; for US company for training of US forces
Yemen 5 OT-90 APC (2012) 2013

Second-hand; designation uncertain (reported as 'armoured combat vehicles')
Denmark Finland 535 BGM-71 TOW Anti-tank missile (2014) 2015 535 Second-hand
171 FIM-92 Stinger Portable SAM (2014) 2014 171 Second-hand; for training
Greece (17) AIM-7M Sparrow BVRAAM (2014) 2015 17 Second-hand; RIM-7M Sea Sparrow (SAM) version
Lithuania 1 Stanflex-300 Patrol craft 2015 2016 1 Second-hand; EUR6.5 m. deal
Netherlands 4 Compact 76mm Naval gun (2007) 2011-2013 (4) Second-hand; for 2 Holland OPV produced in Netherlands and 2 from Romania
Portugal (18) AIM-7M Sparrow BVRAAM (2014) 2015 18 Second-hand; RIM-7M Sea Sparrow (SAM) version
(4) Stanflex-300 Patrol craft 2014 2016-2017 (2) Second-hand; EUR4 m deal (EUR28 incl modernization in Portugal); delivery planned 2016-2018

France Brazil 1 Foudre AALS 2015 2015 1 Second-hand; EUR80 m ($85 m) deal; Brazilian designation Bahia
Cameroon 1 Grèbe Patrol craft 2012 2017 1 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; Cameroon designation Dipikar
Colombia 1 ATR-42 Transport aircraft 2015 2015 1 Second-hand; ATR42-320 version
(400) HOT-2Anti-tank missile 2016 2017 (400) Second-hand; for VAB-VCAC tank destroyers; aid
15 VAB-VCAC Tank destroyer 2016 2017 15 Second-hand; aid
Mali 2 AS-532 Cougar/AS-332 Transport helicopter 2016 2016-2017 2 AS-332L version; second-hand
Morocco 3 Heron UAV 2013 2014 (3) Second-hand; part of Harfang UAV system
Niger 3 SA-342 Gazelle Light helicopter 2012 2013 3 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; armed SA-342L-1 version; part of CFA270 m ($77 m) aid
4 VAB-VTT APC 2015 2015 4 Second-hand; aid
Nigeria 3 SA-342 Gazelle Light helicopter (2013) 2013 3 Second-hand; financed by Germany aid
Pakistan 2 SA-316B Alouette-3 Light helicopter (2013) 2014 2 Second-hand
Senegal 4 TB-30 Epsilon Trainer aircraft (2014) 2015 4 Second-hand
Spain 2 AS-532 Cougar/AS-332 Transport helicopter (2015) 2016-2017 (2) Second-hand; As-332C version
Germany (FRG) Brazil 34 Gepard SPAAG 2013 2013-2015 (34) Second-hand; EUR37 m deal (incl 3 more for spare parts)
Colombia 2 Type-206ASubmarine 2012 2015 2 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; EUR11 m or EUR110 m deal; Colombian designation Intrépido; 2 more delivered for spare parts
1 ATR-42 Transport aircraft 2014 2015 1 Second-hand; for police
Croatia 12 PzH-2000 155mm Self-propelled gun 2014 2015-2017 (12) Second-hand; EUR41 m deal (incl EUR12 m for guns and EUR29 for support and spare parts)
Greece 15 M-113 APC 2012 2013 15 Second-hand; M-577 version; EUR0.1 m deal
Hungary 2 A319 Transport aircraft (2017)

Second-hand; delivery planned 2018
Indonesia 2 BPz-2 ARV 2012 2015 (2) Second-hand; part of EUR216 m deal
3 BrPz-1 Biber ABL 2012 2015-2016 3 Second-hand; part of EUR216 m deal
3 Buffel ARV 2012 2016 (3) Second-hand Leopard-2 tank modified to Buffel ARV
61 Leopard-2A4 Tank 2012 2016-2017 61 Second-hand but modernized to Leopard-2RI before delivery; delivery 2016-2017
42 Leopard-2A4 Tank 2012 2013-2015 42 Second-hand; part of EUR216 m deal
(42) Marder-1A3 IFV 2012 2013-2015 (42) Second-hand (possibly modernized before delivery; 8 more delivered for spare parts only); part of EUR216 m deal
3 PiPz-1 AEV 2012 2016 3 Second-hand; part of EUR216 m deal
Iraq (90) AIM-9L Sidewinder SRAAM 2013 2015 (90) Second-hand AIM-9L modernized to AIM-9L/I-1 version before delivery
15 Dingo-2 APC 2014 2014-2015 15 Second-hand; Dingo-1 version; for Kurdish Regional Government to use against Islamic State rebels
5 Dingo-2 APC 2015 2016 5 Second-hand; Dingo-1 version; for Kurdish Regional Government to use against Islamic State rebels
200 MILAN Anti-tank missile 2015 2016 200 Second-hand; aid; for Kurdish Regional Government to use against Islamic State rebels
Israel (125) MIM-104A Patriot SAM (2012) 2013 (125) Second-hand; loan
2 Patriot SAM system (2012) 2013 2 Second-hand; aid (loan)
Jordan (25) Marder-1A3 IFV 2016 2016-2017 25 Second-hand; aid; refurbished before delivery
25 Marder-1A3 IFV 2017

Second-hand; aid; refurbished before delivery
Lithuania 6 Bpz-2 ARV 2015 2016-2017 (6) Part of EUR58 m ($65 m) deal; second-hand (but possibly modernized before delivery)
26 M-113 APC 2015 2016-2017 (14) Part of EUR58 m ($65 m) deal; second-hand but probably modernized before delivery; M-577V2 version
18 PzH-2000 155mm Self-propelled gun 2015 2016-2017 (8) Part of EUR58 m ($65 m) deal; second-hand but modernized before delivery; 3 more for spare parts; delivery 2016-2019
168 M-113 APC 2016 2017 (84) Second-hand; M-577V2 version; EUR1.6 m. deal; delivery 2017-2018
Netherlands 41 MIM-104C PAC-2 SAM 2013 2013 41 Second-hand; 1-year loan for use with Dutch Patriot SAM systems stationed in Turkey
18 Leopard-2A6 Tank (2015) 2016 18 Second-hand; lease
5 PSB-2 ABL 2016

Second-hand Leopard-2 tank chassis modified to Leguan ABL; delivery 2019-2020
Norway 6 Wisent-2 AEV/ARV 2015 2017 1 Second-hand Leopard-2 tanks rebuilt to Wisent ARV; delivery 2017-2019
Philippines 5 Bell-205/UH-1D Helicopter (2013) 2013 5 Second-hand
Poland 18 Bpz-2 ARV 2013 2015-2016 (18) Second-hand; part of EUR180 m deal
14 Leopard-2A4 Tank 2013 2014 14 Second-hand; part of EUR180 m deal
105 Leopard-2A5 Tank 2013 2014-2015 (105) Second-hand; part of EUR180 m deal
(35) M-113 APC 2013 2015 35 Second-hand; part of EUR200 m deal; command post and ambulance version
Singapore (10) PSB-2 ABL (2010) 2012-2013 (10) Probably second-hand but modernized before delivery or second-hand Leopard-2 tanks modified to ABL
Spain (40) MIM-104C PAC-2 SAM 2015 2015 (40) Second-hand
2 Patriot SAM system 2015 2015 2 Second-hand; EUR41 m deal
Turkey 56 Leopard-2A4 Tank 2009 2010-2014 (56) Second-hand but probably modernized to Leopard-2NG version in Turkey after delivery
United States (15) Do-328 Transport aircraft (2009) 2009-2013 (15) Second-hand; US designation C-146
Venezuela 2 Do-228Light transport ac 2013 2014 2 Second-hand; Do-228-212 version
Italy Argentina (4) Model-56 105mm Towed gun (2015) 2016 4 Possibly second-hand
(20) Bell-206/OH-58 Light helicopter 2016 2017 (20) Second-hand; $3 m deal; AB-206B-1 version
Djibouti 10 M-109A1 155mm Self-propelled gun 2013 2013 10 Second-hand; M-109L version; aid
7 Puma APV 2013 2013 7 Second-hand; aid

M-113 Arisgator APC (2016) 2017 5 Second-hand M-113 but modernized before delivery to Arisgator version
Jordan 141 Centauro AFSV 2014 2017 (24) Second-hand (possibly to be modernized after delivery in Jordan with Italian kits); incl 24 as aid
Libya 2020 Puma APV (2012) 2013 20 Probably second-hand; aid
Pakistan (622) M-113 APC 2013 2013-2015 (622) Second-hand; incl VCC-1 and VCC-2 versions; aid
Uruguay 2 Bell-412 Helicopter (2017)

Second-hand; AB-412 version
Netherlands Canada 80 Leopard-2A4 Tank 2007 2008-2015 (80) Second-hand; part of CAD650 m deal, incl 20 modernized after delivery to Leopard-2A4M for operational use, 42 for training and 18 modification to ARV and AEV (20 more Leopard-2A6 bought by Canada for delivery to FRG to replace 20 delivered by FRG to Canada)
Estonia 81 XA-180 APC 2010 2010-2016 (81) Second-hand; EEK320 m ($25-29 m) deal; incl for use in Afghanistan
2 Bpz-2 ARV 2014 2016-2017 (2) Second-hand
2 BrPz-1 Biber ABL 2014 2017 (2) Second-hand
44 CV-9035 IFV 2014 2016-2017 (28) Second-hand (but probably almost not used by Netherlands); CV-9035NL version
2 PiPz-1 AEV 2014 2017 (2) Second-hand
Finland 100 Leopard-2A6 Tank 2014 2015-2017 (60) Second-hand; EUR200 m deal; delivery planned 2015-2019
8 Bpz-2 ARV 2017

Second-hand; part of EUR8.2 m deal; delivery planned 2018-2019
8 PiPz-1 AEV 2017

Second-hand; part of EUR8.2 m deal; delivery planned 2018-2019
Germany 16 Leopard-2A6 Tank (2015) 2017 (16) Second-hand (modernized in FRG after delivery); gift (donation)
Jordan (264) AIFV IFV 2010 2011-2015 (264) Second-hand
(177) AIFV-APC 2010 2011-2016 (177) Second-hand; incl YPR-806 ARV version
(69) M-113 APC 2010 2012-2013 (69) Second-hand; M-577 command post version
52 AGM-65 Maverick ASM 2013 2015 52 Second-hand
15 F-16C FGA aircraft (2013) 2017 15 Second-hand; 'Peace Falcon-6' deal; F-16AM version (incl 2 F-16BM/F-16D)
15 Flycatcher Fire control radar 2013 2014 15 Second-hand; part of EUR21 m deal
60 Gepard SPAAG 2013 2014-2016 60 Second-hand; part of EUR21 m deal
(5) PiPz-1 AEV 2013 2014-2015 (5) Second-hand; part of EUR21 m deal
5 AIFV IFV 2016 2016 5 Second-hand; aid
15 AIFV-APC APC 2016 2016 (15) Second-hand; aid
Myanmar 2 Fokker-70 Transport aircraft (2016) 2017 2 Second-hand; possibly for government VIP transport. Response of Dutch government [in Dutch].
Peru 1 Amsterdam Support ship 2014 2014 1 Second-hand; Peruvian designation Tacna
3 Bell-412 Helicopter 2014 2015 3 Second-hand; AB-412SP version
2 Fokker-50 Transport aircraft 2014 2014 2 Second-hand
Philippines 4 AIFV-APC APC 2015 2015 4 Second-hand; EUR0.31m deal (incl 1 more delivered for spare parts only; part of PNP882 m ($20 m) deal ordered and delivered via Belgian company; modernized in Belgium before delivery); YPR-806 ARV version
Spain Botswana 1 EC725 Super Cougar Transport helicopter 2016 2016 1 Second-hand; EC-225 version
Jordan (2) CN-235 Transport aircraft (2009) 2014 2 Second-hand; modified to AC-235 ground attack aircraft in USA before delivery
Mozambique 1 Conejera Patrol craft 2011 2013 1 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; aid; Mozambique designation Pebane
Pakistan 2 ATR-72 Transport aircraft 2012 2013 2 Second-hand
United States (20) Mirage F-1M FGA aircraft 2017

Second-hand; for civilian company for training of US armed forces
Uruguay 60 ECIA 120mmMortar (2012) 2015 60 Second-hand
Sweden Hungary 1 JAS-39C Gripen FGA aircraft 2015 2016 1 Second-hand; lease; JAS-39D version
Saudi Arabia 2 Saab-2000 AEW AEW&C aircraft 2010 2014 2 SEK4.5 b ($670 m) deal; second-hand Saab-2000 transport aircraft modified to AEW aircraft.
Switzerland Canada 12 Leopard-2 chassis Tank chassis 2011 2014-2016 (12) Second-hand Leopard-2A4 (Pz-87) delivered without armament; for modification to AEV or other armoured support vehicle
Singapore (13) PiPz-3 Kodiak AEV (2012) 2014-2015 (13) Second-hand Leopard-2 tank chassis rebuilt in Switzerland and Germany to L2-AEV (Kodiak) AEV
United Kingdom Bahrain 2 C-130J Hercules Transport aircraft 2017 2017 (2) Second-hand; Hercules C-5 version
Brazil 3 Tyne Gas turbine (2013) 2013 3 Probably second-hand
1 Ocean AALS (2017)

Second-hand; GBP84 m ($117 m) deal; selected but not yet ordered by end-2017
Chile 1 Tyne Gas turbine (2013) 2013 1 Probably second-hand
Congo (28) AT-105 Saxon APC 2015 2015 (28) Second-hand; delivered via France as aid
Cote d'Ivoire 4 AT-105 Saxon APC 2016 2016 4 Second-hand; delivered via France; for use in UN operation in Mali
Finland 28 G-115 Trainer aircraft 2016 2016-2017 (28) Second-hand; EUR6.6 m deal; G-115EA (Tutor T-1) version
Jordan 8 T-67 Firefly Trainer aircraft (2015) 2015 8 Second-hand
Latvia (20) Scimitar Light tank 2015 2015-2017 (7) Second-hand; part of GBP39 m deal; delivery 2015-2020
(103) Spartan APC 2015 2015-2017 (41) Second-hand; part of GBP39 m deal; incl Sultan command post, Samaritan ambulance and Samson ARV versions; delivery 2015-2020
Lithuania 2 Hunt MCM ship 2008 2013 2 Second-hand but modernized before delivery; probably EUR55 m deal
Malawi 4 SA-342 Gazelle Light helicopter 2015 2015-2016 (4) Second-hand; supplied via South Africa
Mauritania (4) AT-105 Saxon APC 2015 2016 (4) Second-hand; delivered via France; for use in UN operation in Central African Repiblic
Mozambique 25 AT-105 Saxon APC 2013 2013 25 Second-hand

40 FV-432 APC 2013 2013 40 Second-hand
Pakistan 1 Tyne Gas turbine (2013) 2013 1 Probably second-hand

2 Sea King HAR-3 Transport helicopter 2016 2017 2 Second-hand; Sea king HAR-3A version

3 Sea King/Commando Transport helicopter 2017 2017 3 Second-hand (2 more delivered for spare parts); Commando HC-4+ version
Rwanda (1) FV-432 APC 2013 2013 (1) Second-hand
Somalia (25) AT-105 Saxon APC (2012) 2013 (25) Second-hand; aid; Saxon Patrol version; delivered via Djibouti
Ukraine 75 AT-105 Saxon APC 2014 2015 75 Second-hand; GBP3.8 m deal
United States (642) AGM-65 Maverick ASM (2011) 2012-2013 642 Second-hand; status uncertain (possible only for US company)

No. delivered and the Year(s) of deliveries columns refer to all deliveries since the beginning of the contract. The Comments column includes publicly reported information on the value of the deal. Information on the sources and methods used in the collection of the data, and explanations of the conventions, abbreviations and acronyms, can be found at URL <http://www.sipri.org/contents/armstrad/sources-and-methods>.
Source: SIPRI Arms Transfers Database
Information generated: 21 June 2018